Note: This is part V in a series of summaries on instructional design articles.
Tracey, M., & Morrison, G. R. (2012). Instructional design in business and industry. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.) Trends & issues in instructional design & technology (3rd ed.). (pp. 178-186). Columbus, OH: Merrill-Prentice Hall
Tracey and Morrison described the role of instructional design (ID) in business and industry. They explained the multiple roles instructional designers embrace on the job: instructional design, human performance technology, training, and solving organizational problems. In the private sector, instructional designers work as the sole designer, team member/leader, or as an external designer/consultant. Since the 1980’s, there has been a steady growth in the area of ID in the business world. The increase reflects the emphasis placed on improving human performance at the workplace.
The authors discussed three different types of constraints that affect the design process: contextual, designer-related, and project management versus instructional design. Potential contextual constraints include lack of time and resources, the locus of control for decision-making, and ineffective tools and techniques. Designer-related constraints include perceived necessity, philosophical beliefs/theoretical perspectives, and expertise. For example, expertise sometimes is a hindrance if the expert only relies on their mindset for the instructional design process instead of collaborating with others. Lastly, large projects cause difficulty with the time involved in the systematic instructional design methods; therefore, those facing this type of constraint should consider delegating a specialist or delegate to oversee the process instead of burdening the general project manager.
They mentioned four methods to achieve ID goals more quickly and efficiently: designer-as-researcher, rapid prototyping, technology-based training delivery, and advanced evaluation techniques. In my opinion, each method could be used with most ID projects in the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE) phases. For example, the designer-as-researcher utilizes foundational theory and research-based practices to design the instructional framework, instructional strategies, and learning process. Rapid prototyping is used in the developmental phase to help inform the ID team of any glitches. Technology-based training delivery is used in the implementation phase to cut travel costs, etc. Lastly, the advanced evaluation techniques is used in the evaluation phase to inform the redesign, as needed.