Application of Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction to Well Designed Educational (WDE) Gaming
(This chart was published in my dissertation. See references below.)
|Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction (1985)||Comparison to WDE Gaming (Adapted from Becker, 2008 and Van Eck, 2006)||Mental Processes (Gagné & Driscoll, 1988)|
|Gain attention||Capture attention with movement, scenes, sounds, speech, and health status updates||Reception|
|State the learning objectives||Inform learner of quest and related game documentation to include limitations and cutscenes (e.g., set mood)||Expectancy|
|Stimulate recall of prior learning||Present stimulus through environmental structures that provide familiarity with obstacles or behaviors of characters||Retrieval to working memory|
|Present content||Present content according to the objectives of the game such as storyline embedded within the virtual environment||Selective perception|
|Provide guidance||Guide users with storylines, profiles, help section, map, sale of higher-level gear as you level up, hint books, friendly gamers’ verbal and nonverbal input, NPCs’ model language, and partial clues for quests found in gameplay||Semantic encoding|
|Elicit performance||Require adequate knowledge to advance to next level||Responding|
|Provide feedback||Provide feedback via speech, sounds, visuals, text, or motion directives including no motion||Reinforcement|
|Assess performance||Assess users’ performance as they progress to end goal and achieve reward for knowledge and skill||Retrieval and reinforcement|
|Enhance retention||Interweave past learning experience with new challenges; otherwise, repeat prior mistakes||Retrieval and Generalization|
Becker, K. (2008). Video game pedagogy: Good games = Good pedagogy. In C. T. Miller (Ed.), Games: Purpose and potential in education (pp. 73-122). New York, NY: Springer.
Gagné, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Gagné, R. M., & Driscoll, M. P. (1988). Essentials of learning for instruction (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rogers, S. A. (2017). A MMORPG with language learning strategic activities to improve English grammar, listening, reading, and vocabulary (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 10265484)
Van Eck, R. (2006). Building artificially intelligent learning games. In D. Gibson, C. Aldrich, & M. Prensky (Eds.), Games and simulations in online learning research & development frameworks (pp. 271–307). Hershey, PA: Idea Group.