My Schedule for SITE 2014 in Jacksonville, FL

Photo of Sandra Annette Rogers
Find me at the conference and say hello!

Four of my proposals were accepted for presentation at the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) International Conference in Jacksonville, FL.  I’d love to connect with any of my readers who are also going to SITE. This will be my first time to attend SITE.  I’ll be attending all the presentations on gaming.

Here’s my current schedule for the conference: (All times are Eastern Standard Time.)

1. Poster Session: The Electronic Village Online, An Open-source, International Collaboration for Professional Development,  March 19, 2014 at 5:30-7:00 P.M.

2. Roundtable: How to Make Your Online Course More Accessible, March 20, 2014 at 11:30 A.M. to 12:30 P.M.

3.Brief Paper: Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games for Language Learning, March 20, 2014 at 3:20-3:40 P.M.

4. Brief Paper: Effective Online Communication in Higher Education, March 21, 2014 at 11:55 A.M to 12:15 P.M.

I hope to see you there!

P.S. Here’s my Padlet wall with all my activities:

Qualitative Research Ideas for Educational Gaming


What will I research for my dissertation? Since there’s a lack of K-12 research on educational gaming, I want to address this important vehicle for instruction. Besides, gaming as an instructional strategy is a hot topic now.  I’ve blogged about the empirical evidence of how gaming improves vocabulary development. See Gaming as an Instructional Strategy for Language Learning.

Here’s a list and brief description of the five types of qualitative research with examples of possible gaming studies:

  1. Case Study- This looks at a particular situation known as a bounded system. For instance, a researcher could study a class or grade level’s use of a particular educational game.  Educational case studies serve as examples of a particular tool or strategy.
  2. Ethnography- This studies the culture and beliefs of a people. For example, a researcher could study the children’s games particular to the Choctaw Nation by focusing on the attitudes, material used, practices, and values associated with their game play. A best practice is to include someone from within the target population on your research team. Educational researchers engage in ethnography studies that relate to learning.
  3. Grounded Theory- This is an exploratory research study that inductively generates a theory based on data collection. One could collect data on teachers who use gaming with children for instructional purposes and postulate a theory on the type of teacher who is most likely to use gaming in the classroom. This is a type of action research that is ongoing. Each new study could develop into more ideas for inquiry based on the previous patterns observed.
  4. Historical- This is also called narrative research. It’s a chronological study of the accounts of a particular concept. For example, one could study the historical use of computer-based gaming for educational purposes in primary schools. Historical studies can begin where others have left off, or perhaps revisit past accounts for new revelations.
  5. Phenomenology- This is basically the study of a particular phenomenon. A researcher could capture teachers’ responses to well-designed educational games by having the teachers experience the game itself (not just read or hear about it). Then describe their experience through descriptive analysis.

Instructional Design for Human Learning: The Basics

Embed from Getty Images

The information processing theory explains how humans perceive, internalize, and remember information. The Atkinson and Shriffin’s (1968) information processing model included three systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. This was a linear process, which has since been replaced with the nonlinear working memory model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) and other connectionist processes that align with current cognitive neuroscience views of human learning. Instructional designers should focus on the following concepts of information processing to improve learning and retention: the importance of gaining students’ attention, the limitation to working memory, and how to reduce cognitive load.

First, paying attention to instruction is paramount to learning. Bruning, Schraw, and Norby (2011, p.15) define attention as “the mental energy used to perceive, think, and understand.” A person’s attention is limited, selective, but can be self-regulated. There are several distracters which compete for a person’s attention such as noise outside the classroom, unmet physiological needs (e.g., hunger), and psychological aspects (e.g., motivational factors). Therefore, students need to selectively focus on the key elements of the information to be learned. It’s important to explicitly tell students about the importance of attention and teach them how to focus in order for them to be successful. Bruning et al. (p. 35), refer to this as “managing their resources.” They also encourage us to help students transfer these strategies to other content, as this may not occur to them without prompting. As instructional designers, we’re trained to use Gagne’s (1985) nine events of instruction, the first of which is to gain the learner’s attention. Some of the various instructional strategies to achieve this goal are to manipulate the motion, size, intensity, novelty, and/or incongruity of the information.

Second, consider the limitations to working memory and embed metacognitive strategies to help students learn the content. According to Miller (1956), humans are capable of remembering only seven plus-or-minus two pieces of information in our memory at any given time without the help of learning strategies. Therefore, it’s imperative for educators and/or the instruction to provide students with memory strategies to expand this capability or otherwise limit the amount of information provided at any given time. A sampling of learning strategies include chunking, imagery, mnemonics, and rehearsal. Instructional designer should identify specific learning strategies to help students stretch their working memory according to the content, learning environment, and age-appropriateness.

Lastly, due to the competition on a learner’s attention and the limitations to working memory, consider reducing the cognitive load when designing lessons. The cognitive load theory is attributed to Baddeley’s working memory model. Theorists took his model a step further to explain the various intrinsic and extraneous demands on learning information (Sweller, Van Merriënboer, & Paas, 1998). Cognitive load refers to the amount of effort required to process information. For example, difficult information requires more effort due to its intrinsic structure. Extraneous demands refer to how the information is presented during instruction. Bruning et al., explained how intrinsic cognitive load is unalterable until you properly learn something, so that it becomes part of your schema. Instructional designers need to consider the complexity of the content, instructional environment, and the characteristics of the learners in order to avoid cognitive overload. Here are some tips:

  • slow the speed of delivery of complex concepts;
  • sequence tasks logically;
  • use a multimodal approach to delivery; and
  • segment tasks such as instructional videos in small chunks of time (e.g., five minutes).


Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 8, pp. 47-90). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Sweller, J., Van Merriënboer, J., & Paas, F. (1998). Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review10(3), 251–296. doi:10.1023/A:1022193728205

Effective Online Communication for Higher Education

Logic Model of Trace Effects

Inputs, Outputs & Outcomes
IDE 660: Program Evaluation Project

Rogers, S. (2014). Program Theory Logic Model of Trace Effects Video Game. In Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2014 (pp. 1662-1674). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Santa Meets the Common Core Standards

Image of Santa on sleigh pulled by reindeer

In search of standard-based instruction, teachers have been producing and purchasing products aligned with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Certainly, they’d like to provide high interest topics for children. This is where Santa enters the picture. If you search for Common Core + Santa on (TPT), you’ll find 222 results!  I used Clement Clarke Moore’s Christmas poem, and the standards on speaking and listening, to create a literacy activity.

In my product, students are provided space to illustrate the story on each page to match the meaning of the text. Twelve vocabulary words are boldface typed within the poem with definitions provided in the glossary. The purpose is to let students take ownership of the poem by illustrating it and then practice reading it to their parents or other students in the school. This was a popular activity I used in my 3rd Grade class during language arts. Students were eager to learn the new words such as sugarplums, kerchief, and sash, so that they could accurately illustrate their self-made booklet.

Here are the correlating CCSS for Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas:

  • Kindergartners: #5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
  • Grade 1 Students: #5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • Grade 2 Students: #5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories 
    or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • Grade 3 Students: #5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.

The poetry product featured above can be purchased online in my TPT store. You can find PDFs of all the CCSS and their applications to students with disabilities and English Language Learners at this site:

Sandra Rogers,

Instructional Designer

Note: This post was previously published on this 12/19/13.

How to Upload Media and Create a Podcast Channel

Title page to tech project

Dear Teachers,

This learning module instructs and guides students on how to upload a media file to a podcast channel, specifically It can be used to supplement any course content as a project. For instance, a student can produce an audio file on any topic and then publish it to a podcast channel as part of an oral language project. Poetry readings, musical performances, or reporting the weather are just a few ways to incorporate podcasting. This project could last several weeks.

Using emergent technologies is an important skill for the 21st century learner to apply, not only in class, but also in their personal learning networks, college, and future career. Moreover, this product can be used in K-12 schools to address the media skills embedded in the Common Core Standards (2010) for career and college readiness benchmarks. For instance, the English Language Arts Standard for speaking and listening in Grade 2 states (2.5 Presentation of Knowledge): “create audio recordings of stories or poems.” Podcasting would be an excellent vehicle for this task. A similar standard for presenting content in multimedia is included in grades 3-12 core standards.

The learning module includes the following components:
• a podcast interest and technology skill level questionnaire;
• a pretest and posttest on technical terminology (with answer keys);
• an 18-page PowerPoint presentation on the technical terminology;
• a K-W-L chart activity;
• a 7-minute screencast to demonstrate the procedures; (See YouTube video link below)
• a 6-page how-to guide with glossary to serve as a desk reference when performing the task;
• a student checklist of procedures and outcomes for self-assessment of the criteria;
• a rubric for the teacher to evaluate the project; and
* an 18-page teacher guide with research basis and instructional strategies.

Goal Statement: Students will successfully upload a media file to for an oral language project by following the steps in the screencast and supporting how-to guide. The learning context is during class time in the computer lab or on a home computer. Students will need to have already learned how to create an audio or video file and save it as a MP3/MP4 format on a flash drive for school work.

Get a preview of this product on Teacherrogers YouTube channel:
My YouTube Video Demonstration

I completed this project during my doctoral studies, so it includes the research basis for the use of podcasting. I think you’re really going to like this product, as I’ve put over a semester of effort into creating and pilot testing it! It’s for sale on TeachersPayTeachers in the Teacherrogers Store.

Your blogger,

Sandra Rogers