Gagne’s Instructional Sequence for Podcast Learning Module

Title page to tech project

The following instructional design strategy is based on Gagné’s (1985) nine events of instruction in which he provided a format for designing effective training by correlating internal cognitive processes with that of external instructional activities. Many K-12 school systems utilize his sequence of instructional events as a framework for lesson planning. I have previously blogged about Gagné’s work.

These are the instructional events adapted from Gagné to teach k-12 students how to upload an audio file to publish a podcast channel on Podbean.com:
1. Gain attention by first showing a short video of the purpose and meaning of podcasting by Lee LeFever.
2. Inform student of the learning objective(s).
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning by reminding them of the images and vocabulary for technical terminology. Use a KWL chart to make meaningful connections to the sample podcast and informational video with their personal experiences. Have them share these experiences with their peers.
4. Present the content in a demonstration screencast depicting examples from the actual Podbean site to enhance the retention of information. In this way, learners will be more likely to apply the information to their
own project and internalize the content.
5. Provide learner guidance by utilizing callouts (arrows, highlights, & focused lightening), labels, and screenshots in the demonstration or recorded presentation. Use a how-to guide to support the presentation and provide for students with different learning preferences scaffolded instruction. These components will help students stay on track.
6. Elicit performance by having students follow the instructions in the how-to guide and/or presentation.
7. Provide feedback by having students conduct a self-assessment or peer-assessment of their performance with a checklist. Students can read each other’s user profiles and hear the final audio products when they share the links among themselves via email.
8. Assess performance by having students submit final project link to an instructor via email.
9. Enhance retention and transfer to the task by having them send their podcast to another student and have each of them upload it to their own, therefore, replicating the process again. The teacher could also send them an audio file to upload after a week has passed to have them revisit the steps. Encourage students to upload podcasts on a monthly basis in order to rehearse the skill, and therefore, submit to long-term memory.

The complete learning module (teacher guide, pretest, KWL, checklist, rubrics, vocabulary PowerPoint, how-to guide, & posttest)  is available for sale in my TeachersPayTeachers store, Teacherrogers.

Note. Gagné’s 9 events of instruction are italicized.

Reference

Gagné, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Application of Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction to WDE Gaming

Application of Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction to Well Designed Educational (WDE) Gaming 

(This chart was published in my dissertation. See references below.)

Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction (1985) Comparison to WDE Gaming (Adapted from Becker, 2008 and Van Eck, 2006) Mental Processes (Gagné & Driscoll, 1988)
Gain attention Capture attention with movement, scenes, sounds, speech, and health status updates Reception
State the learning objectives Inform learner of quest and related game documentation to include limitations and cutscenes (e.g., set mood) Expectancy
Stimulate recall of prior learning Present stimulus through environmental structures that provide familiarity with obstacles or behaviors of characters Retrieval to working memory
Present content Present content according to the objectives of the game such as storyline embedded within the virtual environment Selective perception
Provide guidance Guide users with storylines, profiles, help section, map, sale of higher-level gear as you level up, hint books, friendly gamers’ verbal and nonverbal input, NPCs’ model language, and partial clues for quests found in gameplay Semantic encoding
Elicit performance Require adequate knowledge to advance to next level Responding
Provide feedback Provide feedback via speech, sounds, visuals, text, or motion directives including no motion Reinforcement
Assess performance Assess users’ performance as they progress to end goal and achieve reward for knowledge and skill Retrieval and reinforcement
Enhance retention Interweave past learning experience with new challenges; otherwise, repeat prior mistakes Retrieval and Generalization

References

Becker, K. (2008). Video game pedagogy: Good games = Good pedagogy. In C. T. Miller (Ed.), Games: Purpose and potential in education (pp. 73-122). New York, NY: Springer.

Gagné, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Gagné, R. M., & Driscoll, M. P. (1988). Essentials of learning for instruction (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rogers, S. A. (2017). A MMORPG with language learning strategic activities to improve English grammar, listening, reading, and vocabulary (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 10265484)

Van Eck, R. (2006). Building artificially intelligent learning games. In D. Gibson, C. Aldrich, & M. Prensky (Eds.), Games and simulations in online learning research & development frameworks (pp. 271–307). Hershey, PA: Idea Group.

Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction for Pixlr Workshop

Photo of authur with stars, leaves, and vines over image.
I used Pixlr to edit and manipulate my photo.

Pixlr Tech Teaser (15 min)
This instructional sequence is based on Gagné’s (1985) nine events of instruction. The internal processes for each event are based on the work of Gagné and Driscoll (1988).

Prep: Download Pixlr software to desktop. Open picture editor. Preload folder with images for practice. Locate some great images edited with the software to illustrate as examples.

Software constraints:
• Not compatible with Mozilla Firefox; Use Google Chrome or Internet Explorer instead;
• Advance level Editor will not save as an image file. It will download as an odd file type. You’ll be able to see the icon. Simply rename it as a .jpg or .png; and
• Limited text manipulation of font. For example, you can’t make font bold or italicized. To enlarge the text,  manipulate the text box size.

Lesson
1. Gain Attention: Show some amazing images that you created with Pixlr for a class. (Internal process: reception)
2. State Objective: Use Pixlr to modify or enhance images for course content to add visual imagery, cues, or a personal touch to your online courses.  (Internal process: expectancy)
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning: Ask if they have ever worked with Pixlr, Picasa, Photoshop, or Gimp? Let them share their experience with these photo editing software programs.  (Internal process: retrieval to working memory)
4. Present content: (Internal process: selective perception)
• Free photo editing software. Free mobile app, too. Show intermediate level— Open Pixlr Express (Efficient);
• No need to login. Can save image to desktop. Log in to save images in the cloud;
• The more advanced level, Open Pixlr Editor, has almost the same amount of photo editing capabilities as Adobe’s Photoshop;
• Functions include crop, re-size, fix red-eye/whiten teeth, colorization, and 600 special effects.
5. Provide learner guidance: Share handout with tips. Demo Open Pixlr express (Efficient), which is mid-level.  (Internal process: semantic encoding)
6. Elicit performance: Participants upload photo from desktop for editing at Efficient level.  (Internal process: responding)
7. Provide Feedback: Answer questions and assist participants one-on-one.  (Internal process: reinforcement)
8. Assessment: Ask some basic recall questions about software, tips, and constraints.  (Internal process: retrieval & reinforcement)
9. Enhance retention and transfer: In one word, how do you plan to use it in your class? (e.g., lessons, projects, introductions) Invite them to a workshop on emergent technology to learn more about Pixlr.  (Internal process: retrieval & generalization)

Note: For more information on Pixlr, visit my blog on the topic. For more information on Gagne’s nine events of instruction, see my blog on that topic.

References

Gagné, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Gagné, R. M., & Driscoll, M. P. (1988).  Essentials of learning for instruction (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Gagne’s Format for Designing Effective Training

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Even after his death, Robert Mills Gagné continues to be one of the most influential contributors to instructional design.  His work with the US Army Air Corps  was instrumental in aiding the military during World War II to screen aviation recruits effectively and efficiently. This work led to the first edition of The Conditions of Learning in 1965, of which he would revise five times throughout his career. In this seminal book that combined behavioral and cognitive psychology, information processing model, and the general systems theory, Gagné provided a format for designing effective training by correlating internal cognitive processes with that of external instructional activities.  Moreover, Gagné proposed three new aspects to learning: conditions, domains, and instructional events.

His conditions of learning theory identified five major categories of learning, their correlating internal learning conditions, and nine events of instruction to address them. Gagné’s theory is based on the need to align the various types of learning with instructional events and conditions for acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other learner characteristics.  His quest was to facilitate learning by analyzing the act of learning itself. For example, Gagné developed a learning hierarchy to address complex intellectual skills, in which he proposed which events should be addressed first before proceeding to the next—a sequence of instruction. He believed that simpler tasks, prerequisite skills, should be learned before advancing to more complex ones. Through his systematic analysis of instruction, he started with the overarching aspect of learning domains.

Gagné categorized learning into five learning outcomes: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes.  Verbal information refers to data we store in our memory and recall as needed.  Intellectual skills refer to intelligence, achievement, and problem solving abilities that make us competent.  Cognitive strategies are defined as self-monitoring such as metacognition and strategizing to help us learn, think, and remember. Motor skills refer to learning capabilities that involve the mind and body. Attitudes are personal attributes and characteristics that affect how one learns, as well as their understanding of epistemology.  Clearly, each of these types of learning produce different human performance outcomes; therefore, Gagné studied the behavioral and cognitive conditions for each category that led to a learning event.

Gagné’s nine events of learning provided a process for designing instruction; one that is steeped in behavioral learning theories such as providing learners with objectives, learner expectations, cueing with a stimulus (gain attention), as well as positive reinforcement (feedback). However, it also included cognitive learning processes such as scaffolding (learning guidance), enhancing retention and transfer, and the overall fact that he was correlating internal mental processes with external learning events.  The nine events of learning are as follows: gain attention, inform learners of objectives, stimulate recall of prior learning, present the content, provide learning guidance, elicit performance, provide feedback, assess performance, and enhance retention and transfer to the task.

In conclusion,  his quest was to facilitate learning by systematically analyzing the act of learning itself. Gagné’s instructional events have been widely adopted for instructional design purposes in multiple disciplines.  For example, K-12 school systems utilize his instructional events as a framework for lesson planning and evaluation.  In addition, the military, who was first influenced by Gagné’s work during WWII, continues to utilize his conditions of learning theory to produce effective training.  Nowadays, his nine events of learning are ubiquitous in the field of instructional design.

Reference
Gagné, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.