This week, I was asked to share my knowledge on Google Drive with colleagues at work. I figured it was time to resurrect a couple of useful blog posts! Here’s my collection on the various educational uses of Google Drive apps.
2. Create a Google Site from a Gmail Account (video)
3. I Love Google Scholar Alerts! (blog)
4. What are Google Drawings? (infographic)
I’m currently checking out the beta version of Google Classroom. I’ll let you know what I think in a future blog post.
I created this list for instructional designers working with faculty in higher education who are moving their courses online for the first time. This is not a comprehensive list but rather a checklist for talking points. I hope you find it helpful!
- Will the course shell be shared with others in your department?
- What are the course learning goals and objectives (review syllabus, lecture notes, and assignments)? What are the objectives for each unit?
- What do you want your students to achieve through online activities and interactions? (Discuss reuse/redesign of existing activities like a pen-and-paper vocabulary log to an electronic glossary/flashcards.)
- What is your ability to develop multimedia presentations? Discuss training and helpful resources.
- How familiar are you with the online learning management system? Discuss training and helpful resources.
- Share sources of support for pedagogical assistance for faculty.
- Share sources of online technological and academic support for students (e.g., Smarthinking, TurnitIn, Orientation Course, LMS 24/7 Support Desk, Blog Tips, or job aids)
- What are the departmental timelines, constraints, testing requirements, and online resources?
- Share samples of monitoring tools: weekly activity checklists for students and teachers, tracking sheet for teacher’s response to students in forums, and LMS site statistics and test item analysis.
- Share sample rubrics for collaborative projects, forums, and individual assignments, as well as resources for creating rubrics (e.g. Rubistar).
- Share copy of Netiquette, sample rubric for forums, and effective set-up of threaded discussion to engender a community of inquiry.
- Share your university’s accessibility guidelines for e-learning.
- Invite faculty to view your model course as a student (teacher-as-learner role).
- Share sample semestrial course checklist for design/redesign.
Learning is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, as well the acculturation of values, attitudes, and emotional reactions (mindset). Learning is determined from the following observations: completion of a new behavior/task, change in frequency/speed/intensity to said task, changing the complexity of a task, and responding differently to particular stimulus. Moreover, learning can be inferred from certain situations like avoidance of risky or unpleasant behaviors.
Learning is impacted by prior knowledge (and misunderstandings), a learners’ belief system, and environmental barriers. Environmental barriers include economic, physical, political, linguistic, ethno-cultural, and social ones. For example, societal barriers include gender bias.
According to Pinker’s debate at the Harvard Mind, Brain, Behavior series, there’s a great deal of parental discrimination in raising and reporting on sons versus daughters’ individual differences in math and science. She suggested that this produces a pattern of discrimination in favor of sons. For example, parents of children in the 6th or 8th grade thought that their sons were better at math and science than parents of daughters of the same age. Subsequently, females may lose interest or be discouraged due to lack of encouragement. Of note, male and female students at that age both reported liking math. Fortunately, teachers of that same age group reported no gender biases.
My personal learning theory is a myriad of best practices supported by human learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. (I actually place constructivism within the cognitivist umbrella term.) I adhere for the need to show measurable outcomes which is rooted in behaviorism; an example would be the utilization of measurable objectives. Moreover, I acknowledge the use of positive reinforcement to enhance learning. As for cognitive theory, I adhere to cognitivists’ self-regulated learning. For example, I’m a constant learner who reflects on my own understanding of a topic or methodology and seeks ongoing education.
From constructivism, I utilize Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning theory to address misconceptions. For instance, I coined a term called, “smart mistakes”. These types of errors are often based on preconceived rules, such as the application of false cognates to a second language. In this situation, the learning is drawing from their first language, which is part of their socio-cultural background.
Do you think that problem solving, critical thinking, and creative thinking are synonymous?
In order to solve problems effectively and efficiently, you need to use creative thinking and critical thinking. Jonassen (2000) created a typology of problem solving. He identified 11 types of problems: logical problems, algorithms, story problems, rule using problems, decision-making, trouble-shooting, diagnoses solution, strategic performance, case analysis, designs, and dilemmas. He described each type of problem’s resolution process. For example, if a problem presents limited variables that can be controlled through manipulation, then an analyst would know that they have a logical problem by referring to Jonassen’s typology chart. Logical problems are “discovered” in Jonassen’s description of its structuredness, where discovered refers to solutions drawn from logic. Determining the logic model is a type of critical thinking process. Problem solving depends on the type of problem and its structuredness, context, inputs, abstractness, and activities (Jonassen, 2004). Therefore, critically analyze the type of problem and its structuredness.
The overarching strategy for problem analysis involves the steadfast engagement of critical thinking processes. Using a systematic process assists you with adequately thinking though the complexity and multifarious components of problem solving. Some instructional design approaches ask questions in a stepwise process to analyze problems. For example, Harless’ (1974) first question in the process of front-end analysis asks: “Do we have a problem?” Learners must use critical thinking to avoid making assumptions about a situation. Is it a problem or an opportunity? Dick, Carey, and Carey (2009) suggested that novice instructional designers develop their critical thinking skills to become effective performance analysts. They urged analysts to be open-minded and view problems from multiple perspectives. Critical thinking processes include synthesis of a problem statement, front-end analysis (FEA), triangulation of data collection, root cause analysis, active listening, system-wide checks and balances, and reflective thinking. For example, thinking critically will help you avoid various FEA pitfalls such as Groupthink.
Addressing a problem strategically takes some creative thinking. For example, there are timesaving strategies and models for problem analysis such as Jonassen’s idea of keeping a fault database. When I read about this, I thought of how simple, yet, creative this strategy was. Have you heard of Toyoda’s Why Tree? It’s a creative and simple technique for getting to the root cause of a problem. He first used the method in the Toyota manufacturing process in 1958. It consists of 5 why-questions that represent deeper levels of understanding the problem. For each answer, you ask why until you uncover the true root cause. Responses are mapped out according to different leads/reasons. There are 3 benefits to using this process. First, the different branches/reasons that stem from a problem statement can lead to more than one root cause and various interventions. Second, it creates a mental map for synthesis of a presenting problem. Third, it will aid novice analysts in digging deeper to uncover the real root causes and avoid superficial conclusions. This creative process utilizes deductive reasoning, which is a type of critical thinking. Therefore, critical thinking, creative thinking, and problem solving are interrelated processes but not interchangeable terms.
In my opinion, the blended format offers the best learning situation. It’s like a web-enhanced course on steroids. You’ll get to meet with the students in person, share all types of great resources online, and continue discussions online instead of having the conversation end when the face-to-face class ends. The three most important things I’d tell faculty transitioning from regular face-to-face classes (F2F) to that of a blended format are as follows:
1. Establish a clear schedule that explicitly outlines the activities to be conducted according to your blended format.
2. Revisit each of your F2F lessons and assignments to decide which ones are compatible for the online format and adapt them accordingly.
3. Apply many of the same basic principles for engendering a community of inquiry in your F2F to that of the blended format.
Blended format schedule. It’s imperative to state which activities will happen in the F2f class and asynchronously online; otherwise, students will become confused and miss F2F class meetings other activities. Educators should provide students a paper schedule and also add the important dates to the online course calendar. Additionally, special reminders can be shared via the online course announcements tool. This schedule should also be appended to the course syllabus. I suggest placing the dates of the F2F class meetings in the heading of the syllabus instead of buried within the other information.
Adaptation of lessons. Review all of your lessons with a new lens for the blended format. Make a t-chart of which lessons are suitable for the F2F and online learning environments. Then build a new schedule. It will serve as a nice outline for the course. You may have to modify, add, or remove existing activities and lessons to adequately fit the blended format. For example, I like to conduct a mock and formal debate. In the past, I taught the reading course in a Web-enhanced format. In designing my project for the blended format, I realized that I could conduct the mock debate via the Sakai Meetings tool and keep the formal debate F2F. Lastly, make sure you edit all your existing assignments tied to lessons to reflect the updates.
Community of inquiry. A community of inquiry (COI) exists when you have social presence, cognitive presence, and teacher presence. Some educators believe that the COI can only occur in F2F formats. Actually, when teachers encourage students to share ideas and their work, this provides for social presence online and F2F. Second, try to bring the same great F2F conversations to the online forums for discussion. This requires a lot of forethought before you post your question and related articles. This can engender cognitive presence if it provides challenging questions and promotes student-student interactions. Lastly, teachers need to be actively engaged in the discussions online in the same way that they lead, moderated, or guided the F2F ones. This provides teacher presence. Just as you would give timely feedback on assignments as a F2F best practice, this also adds teacher presence. In summary, the three main things to keep in mind for transitioning content from a F2F course to a blended format is to be hyper-vigilant of the lesson scheduling, adaptation of activities, and maintenance of the COI.
Gee’s (2007) description of semiotic domains reminds me of what my language peers refer to as multiple literacies; that’s the literacy required to perform a task beyond reading, writing, and arithmetic. Semiotic domain refers to the ability to detect the signs, symbols, merit, value, and language of a particular activity in order to function properly within it. For example, children who play video games are learning the semiotic domain of that particular game environment. If they’re playing Minecraft, then they’ll learn to appreciate their physical surroundings, system alerts, personal alliances, and any help section embedded within the game. In essence, the game’s affordances, and their role within it, become the semiotic domain that must be learned in order for the learner to be successful.
I don’t think that children should play violent video games for these same reasons. Even though the Supreme Court declared no age-limit to graphically violent video games in 2011 (due to the lack of evidence in inciting violence among young players), I believe the semiotic domain of those violent actions become imprinted on the child. Due to the potentially harmful activity, scientists cannot properly study this phenomenon.
Gee stated that video gaming offers important semiotic domains which include active problem-solving, critical thinking, and unique language functions (“design grammar”) in-world as an avatar and in real life as a gamer playing the game. Additionally, the learner discovers how they would react in new situations; they can replay the situation to manipulate outcomes. In this way, the learner is able to make corrective actions on their own or through resets by termination. We seldom get the opportunity to manipulate our outcomes in real life. These are a few of the reasons why I think that nonviolent gaming is a valuable learning domain.
When I taught preschool at the University of California’s laboratory elementary school, I encountered parents who disliked my use of the series called Rotten Ralph by Jack Gantos. It’s a story about an undisciplined cat that always gets into trouble. I thought the book would make a nice counter match with the popular Clifford the Big Red Dog series by Norman Bridwell. Clifford causes trouble not because he’s undisciplined but rather because of his large size. Hence, he was not really ever in trouble for misbehaving. I liked how Rotten Ralph showed that even if you act badly, your family will still love you and want you around. Children need to know that there’s room for error in their development of knowledge about the world around them. In a sense, gaming can provide that error-safe environment—a world of resets.
Children should participate fully in semiotic domains to produce virtual objects, create alliances, and develop new meanings. In Minecraft, they can create Lego-like structures for their alliances (guilds) and learn to survive various physical threats to self and environmental threats to their structure(s). This affords the child the feeling of accomplishment. Children still learn about life and death but not in a graphically violent way. Play is beneficial for humans’ assimilation and accommodation throughout life. Piaget first posited this in his theory of cognitive development in the 1950s, which stated that play and imitation are essential human strategies. Nowadays, there’s little time during the school day for play. There is, however, an emphasis in computer literacy and developing critical thinking. Perhaps gaming could meet that demand and allow for playtime, too.
I created my first academic Webquest to search for the critical thinking processes particular to a student’s field of study. For example, I give them key words to use like “thinking frames” + “critical thinking” + “reading” + “medicine”. Once they find 10 different resources, they are to place at least 6 key elements into a job aid to help them read critically. I provided them with information on the various job aid formats from the American Society of Training and Development (ASTD).
The WebQuest was one of my assignments this past week for my doctoral course in Web-based course design. Actually, I could do it on any topic, but I choose one for a hybrid course I’m creating titled Critical Reading 101. I already submitted the assignment but find myself going back to tweak it. Webquests are great, but they have so many little loose pieces of information that you need to tie up in a nice bow in order for it to work. Plus, there’s the fine line of providing too much help and not enough. My assignment stated less than 10 hyperlinks; mine only has 6.
I used Zunal, which allows you to make one freebie Webquest. There’s something wrong with their PDF maker, as it publishes the document with errors and without the hyperlinks. Nevertheless, it’s a great site to host your Webquest or find an existing one. Zunal serves a a job aid for creating a Webquest as it takes you through the introduction, task, process, evaluation, and conclusion.
Here’s my Webquest: http://zunal.com/webquest.php?w=250042
P.S. You can evaluate my WebQuest on the Evaluate WebQuest page. It even offers a self-evaluation tool that was very helpful. I still need to add the references to the Teacher Page and Common Core Standards for Grades 11-12.
In Fish is Fish ©, Lionni tells the story of two friends, a fish and a tadpole, who grow up together in a pond. When the tadpole becomes a frog, he’s able to hop out of the pond and discover land. Upon return, he describes to the fish the wondrous things he has seen. The fish imagines these things based on his prior knowledge and understanding of the world. Hence, birds are fish with wings, cows are fish with udders, and people are fish in clothing, and so forth. With an inability to imagine a very different reality, the fish simply superimposes the new on the old.
This story illustrates the impact of a learner’s prior knowledge on new information. Generally, the learner is unaware of their misunderstandings. Bransford, Brown, and Cocking (1999) found a solid research base to support tapping into a learner’s prior knowledge. Learners’ preconceived notions remain unchanged if their initial understanding is not engaged by the instructor. In fact, even if students learn new information about a concept for a test, they may still revert to their original understanding when transferring it to real world applications. For example, in a 1983 study by Wandersee, students prior knowledge on animal food needs biased their understanding of the primary source of food in green plants. Elementary and college students held the misconception that soil was the plants’ food even though many had received instruction on photosynthesis. Bransford et al. suggested that educators find ways to make a learner’s thinking visible in order to address these misconceptions.
Second, a learner’s belief system is tied to their experiences and culture. Sometimes in order to make sense of something new, one needs to see it associated to something known within their culture. Bransford et al. give the example of storytelling, which is an important component of some cultures. This can be associated with the language arts curriculum as a skill. An educator needs to have an understanding of the learners’ cultural background to aid sense-making. Generally, second language educators understand the importance of valuing a learner’s cultural background. Their specific training on the nature of language (linguistics) describes how culture is inextricably tied to language. Therefore, it’s important to use many examples and nonexamples in teaching new concepts. These should be open for discussion to allow learners to make connections to their understandings. In this way, the student introduces their own culture versus the good-willed but misinformed teachers’ understanding of culture not her own.
Third, it’s important to understand the economic, physical, political, linguistic, ethno-cultural, and social environmental barriers to learning new concepts. In my opinion, the fish-is-fish phenomenon occurs with learners whose systems include one or a combination of the following: monolingualism, racial homogeneity, geographic isolation, closed systems (those that exist without need from outside systems), economic hardships, and political isolation. This list is only cursory.
I encountered various environmental barriers when using food to discuss nutrition in the elementary classroom in East Los Angeles. A school grant provided fresh fruits and vegetables with nutrition lessons weekly to a classroom. The day I introduced blueberries became more of a discussion on the fruit than on its nutritional values. The high cost of this fruit, coupled with it not being a part of the ethnic foods generally sold or purchased in the area, made blueberries an oddity. As one can imagine, students were more interested in tasting it than hearing about it. How could I appropriately describe the taste of a blueberry to someone who has never eaten one? The nutrition program’s lesson time frame for eating the fruit was generally on day three; of course, I didn’t stick to the plan. However, in some instances, the fruit was shipped still green, so that it would ripen according to the right day of the lesson plan.
P.S. I received permission from Random House to use this copyrighted illustration for this single blog post!